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## 02 October 2009

### Centripetal vs. Centrifugal Force: Golf Cart

A golf cart is moving in a straight line. I want the cart to move in a circle. Should I push or pull the cart TOWARD the center of the circle, or AWAY FROM the center of the circle?

Of course, this is the central (ha!) question of the circular motion unit. Students have preconceived notions of "centrifugal force," as well as mistaken ideas about force in the direction of motion. It's nice to begin the circular motion unit with this central question, followed by a demonstration that shows unambiguously and memorably that force toward the center of the circle is required.

Since I live on campus, about 0.5 miles from my classroom, I drive a golf cart to work. This morning I blocked off about 10 spaces in the little parking lot next to the science dungeon. I tied a sturdy rope to the corner of my cart. With the class watching, I drove the cart forward. A physically strong student pulled on the rope in a direction perpendicular to the cart's velocity. Sure enough, the cart's path arced slightly.

Next, I had THREE students tug on the rope. This time the cart's path described a "tighter" circle. We will use this qualitative observation on Monday, when we write and use the equation for centripetal acceleration.

And finally, I turned to a student who originally answered that we should pull the cart AWAY from the center of the circle. I asked him to do so, but he smiled and politely declined. Woo-hoo -- he gets it.

GCJ